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SURFER 16
三維科學繪圖軟體
A Powerful Contouring, Gridding, and Surface Mapping Package for Scientists and Engineers
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Features

Contour Maps

 

Surfer contour maps give you full control over all map parameters. You can accept the Surfer intelligent defaults to automatically create a contour map, or double-click a map to easily customize map features. 

Display contour maps over any contour range and contour interval, or specify only the contour levels you want to display on the map. And with Surfer you can add color fill between contours to produce dazzling displays of your maps, or produce gray scale fills for dramatic black and white printouts.


Create colorful contour maps with custom levels, colors, and a color scale!

Contour Map Features

  • Automatic or user-defined contour intervals and ranges
  • Full control over contour label format, font, frequency, placement, and spacing
  • Drag contour labels to place them exactly where you want them
  • Automatic or user-defined color for contour lines
  • Color fill between contours, either user-specified or as a custom color map of your choice
  • Save and load custom color map files for the exact desired display
  • Use one of the built-in presets as the color map
  • Full control over hachures
  • Save and load contour map level files that contain all the level information, so you can easily and quickly create contour maps with consistent properties
  • Regulate smoothing of contour lines
  • Blank contour lines in areas where you don't want to show any data
  • Specify color for blanked regions, or make them transparent
  • Add color scale 
  • Create any number of contour maps on a page
  • Add base, vector, shaded relief, image, or post map layers to contour map layers
  • Drape contour map layers over 3D surfaces or 3D wireframes for dramatic displays
  • Export contours in 3D DXF and 3D SHP formats
  • Adjust the layer opacity

 
Individual contour labels can be dragged to a new location,
new labels can be added and individual labels can be deleted.

3D Surface Maps

The 3D surface map uses shading and color to emphasize your data features. Change the lighting, display angle and tilt with a click of the mouse. Overlay several surface maps to generate informative block diagrams.   


Create exciting 3D surface maps from your XYZ data!
Image courtesy of Igor Yashayaev, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Fisheries and Oceans, Canada.

3D Surface Map Features

  • Specify surface color gradation, shininess, base fill and line color
  • Control mesh line frequency, color, style, surface offset
  • Set lighting horizontal and vertical angles, ambient, diffuse, and specular properties
  • Overlay contour maps, image maps, post maps, shaded relief maps, raster and vector base maps, and other surface maps for spectacular presentations
  • Choose overlay resample method and resolution, color modulation (blending) of surface and overlays
  • Save and load custom color map files for the exact desired display
  • Use one of the built-in presets as the color map
  • Add color scales to explain the data values corresponding to each color
  • Disable the display of blanked grid nodes or map the blanked areas to a specific Z level


Combining surface maps is an excellent technique to visually compare data sets.
Image courtesy of Igor Yashayaev, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Fisheries and Oceans, Canada.
 


Overlay surface maps to visually depict changes with depth!

Image Maps

Surfer image maps use different colors to represent elevations of a grid file. Surfer automatically blends colors between percentage values so you end up with a smooth color gradation over the entire map. You can add color anchors at any percentage point between 0 and 100. Each anchor point can be assigned a unique color, and the colors are automatically blended between adjacent anchor points. This allows you to create color maps using any combination of colors. Add a color scale to show the values of the different colors! Image maps can be created independently of other maps, or can be combined with other map layers. They can be scaled, resized, limited and moved.


Customize your image map by adding color, including a color scale, and
overlaying it with other map layers to make the map as informative as
possible! The above map is created from an image map of Colorado
elevation overlaid with a base map layer showing the county boundaries.
Image courtesy of Igor Yashayaev, 
Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Fisheries and Oceans, Canada.

Image Map Features

  • Display pixel maps or smoothed images
  • Save and load custom color map files for the exact desired display
  • Use one of the built-in presets as the color map
  • Create an associated color scale
  • Overlay image maps with contour, post, or base maps
  • Specify a color for missing data, or choose to make areas of no data transparent
  • Change the rotation and tilt angles
  •  Adjust the layer opacity


Colorful and smooth image maps can be combined with base maps and
contour maps to create informative displays. Image courtesy of Igor
Yashayaev, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Canada.

Shaded Relief Maps

Shaded relief maps are raster images based on grid files. Shaded relief maps assign colors based on slope orientation relative to a light source. Surfer determines the orientation of each grid cell and calculates reflectance of a point light source on the grid surface. The light source can be thought of as the sun shining on a topographic surface. Surfer automatically blends colors between percentage values so you end up with a smooth color gradation over the map. You can add color anchors so each anchor point can be assigned a unique color, and the colors are automatically blended between adjacent anchor points. This allows you to create color maps using any combination of colors. Shaded relief maps can be created independently of other maps, or can be combined with other layers. Shaded relief maps can be scaled, resized, limited, and moved in the same way as other types of maps.

  
Create detailed shaded relief maps! This map shows a turbidite fan 
and was created with multi-beam echo-sounder data obtained 
in the Caribbean Sea 

Shaded Relief Map Features

  • Create photo-quality relief maps from grid files
  • Control light source position, relative slope gradient, and shading
  • Overlay with contour, vector, post, or base maps for highly effective displays
  • Shading calculations based on several shading methods, including Simple, Peucker's Approximation, Lambertian Reflection, and Lommel-Seeliger Law
  • Set relief parameters using Central Difference or Midpoint difference gradient methods
  • Save and load custom color map files for the exact desired display
  • Use one of the built-in presets as the color map
  • Specify a color for missing data, or choose to make areas of no data transparent
  • Change the rotation and tilt angles
  • Adjust the layer opacity


Combine a shaded relief map with contour and base map features.

 

Post Maps

Post maps show XY locations with fixed size symbols or proportionally scaled symbols of any color. Create post maps independent of other maps on the page, or combined with other map layers. For each posted point, specify the symbol and label type, size, and angle. Also create classed post maps that identify different ranges of data by automatically assigning a different symbol or color to each data range. Post your sample locations, well locations, or original data point locations on a contour map to show the distribution of data points on the map, and to demonstrate the accuracy of the gridding methods you use.

   
 
Use post maps to display the location of your XY data.
     
Different symbols are used to display different ranges of data in classed post maps. Here, a classed post map is overlaid on a wireframe map and 3D label lines have been added to lift the symbols up off the map surface. 
 

Post Map Features

  • Create any number of post maps on a single page
  • Post data from any number of files
  • Use proportional or fixed size symbols
  • Full control of symbol style, color, and frequency
  • Post every point or every nth point
  • Specify custom symbols from the worksheet
  • Add labels from a data file and adjust the angle of the label and the plane in which the label appears
  • Drag post map labels to place them exactly where you want them
  • Make a classed post map to post different symbols for specified ranges of data values
  • Create a classed post legend to display the symbols and data ranges
  • Save and load classes for a classed post map 
  • Adjust the layer opacity

3D Wireframe Maps

Surfer wireframe maps provide an impressive three dimensional display of your data. Wireframes are created by connecting Z values along lines of constant X and Y. Use color zones, independent XYZ scaling, orthographic or perspective projections at any tilt or rotation angle, and different combinations of X, Y and Z lines to produce exactly the surface you want. Drape a color-filled contour map over a wireframe map to create the most striking color or black-and-white representations of your data. The possibilities are endless.    


A wireframe map can be used to display any combination of X,Y, and Z lines.
A USGS SDTS DEM file was used to create this map and color zones were defined for the X and Y lines. 

3D Wireframe Map Features

  • Display any combination of X,Y, and Z lines
  • Use automatic or user-defined color zones to highlight different Z levels
  • Stack any number of 3D surfaces on a single page
  • Optional hidden line removal
  • Overlay any combination of contour, filled contour, base, post, and classed post maps on a surface
  • Views of the top or bottom of the surface, or both
  • Proportional or independent scaling in the X,Y, and Z dimensions
  • Full control over axis tick marks and tick labels
  • Add a base with optional vertical base lines
  • Display the surface at any rotation or tilt angle

Vector Maps

Instantly create vector maps in Surfer to show direction and magnitude of data at points on a map. You can create vector maps from information in one grid or two separate grids. The two components of the vector map, direction and magnitude, are automatically generated from a single grid by computing the gradient of the represented surface. At any given grid node, the direction of the arrow points in the direction of the steepest descent. The magnitude of the arrow changes depending on the steepness of the descent. Two-grid vector maps use two separate grid files to determine the vector direction and magnitude. The grids can contain Cartesian or polar data. With Cartesian data, one grid consists of X component data and the other grid consists of Y component data. With polar data, one grid consists of angle information and the other grid contains length information. Overlay vector maps on contour or wireframe maps to enhance the presentation!

   

 

A vector map of Mt. St. Helens overlaid on a contour map (left) and wireframe map (right). Use a color scale bar or legend to indicate the magnitude of the arrows. 

Vector Map Features

  • Create vector maps based on one grid or two grids.
  • Define arrow style, color, and frequency
  • Symbol color may be fixed, based on vector magnitude or based on a grid file
  • Save and load custom color map files for the exact desired display
  • Use one of the built-in presets as the color map
  • Display color scale bars and vector scale legends
  • Scale the arrow shaft length, head length, and width
  • Control vector symbol origin
  • Choose from linear, logarithmic, or square root scaling methods 

Adjust the layer opacity

Base Maps

  
Surfer can import maps in many different formats to display geographic information. You can combine base maps with other maps in map overlays, or can create stand-alone base maps independent of other maps on the page. You can load any number of base maps on a page. It is easy to overlay a base map on a contour or surface wireframe map, allowing you to display geographic information in combination with the three dimensional data. 

 

 

 

   


Display your base maps in Surfer alone or overlay them on other maps.

Base Map Features

  • Edit the line, fill, text and symbol properties for individual objects in a base map
  • Globally edit the line, fill, text and symbol properties for al objects in a base map
  • Import georeferenced images files in real world coordinates
  • Manually georeferenced images files in real world coordinates
  • Calculate the area and perimeter length of polygons in a base map
  • Calculate the length of polylines in a base map
  • Copy, paste, reshape, move and delete individual objects in a base map
  • Add new objects to a base map
  • Adjust the layer opacity
  • Import base maps in several formats: AN?, BLN, BMP, BNA, BW, DCM, DIC, DDF, DLG, DXF, E00, ECW, EMF, GIF, GSB, GSI, JPEG, JPG, LGO, LGS, MIF, PCX, PLT, PLY, PNG, PNM/PPM/PGM/PBM, RAS, RGB, RGBA, SHP, SID, SUN, TGA, TIF, TIFF, VTK, WMF, X, and XIMG. 

Map Layers

Adding multiple map layers to your map gives you a way to combine different types of data in one map. For example, you can drape a georeferenced image over a 3D surface map, overlay multiple base maps with a contour map, or plot a post map with contours over a wireframe map. And because you can add any number of map layers to a map, you can show any amount of data on a single map. You are limited only by your imagination!

This map was created by adding two contour map layers, a base map layer and a wireframe map layer to display contaminate spread.

 

Overlay several surface maps to generate informative block diagrams. This image illustrates the geology of the Great Lake Ladoga on the margin of the Baltic (Fennoscandian) Shield. 
(How do I create a block diagram?)

 

Effortlessly produce vivid and stunning maps that display an array of data! Image courtesy of Igor Yashayaev, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Canada.

 

Overlay multiple map layers and adjust the transparency of the upper layers to see the lower layers beneath! This example shows a partially transparent contour map overlaid with a georeferenced image file imported as a base map.

 

Stacking Maps

 

You can align individual maps horizontally on the page by stacking them. Map stacking was designed to align maps using commensurate coordinate systems. This command is useful for keeping two or more maps separated vertically on the page while keeping relative horizontal positions.


Stack multiple 2D maps to see multiple layers!


Stack and rotate maps for the best presentation possible! 

 

Customize Your Map!

Make your map look its best by customizing it to fit your needs! Surfer offers numerous map features to enhance the look of your map. Use Surfer defaults, or customize your map by including scale bars, editing colors, lines and fill styles, showing only portions of a map, adjusting the scale and setting axis properties!

Map Features

  • Change the tilt, rotation and field of view angle for the map
  • Specify the view projection as perspective or orthographic
  • Set XYZ scales in map units or page length
  • Choose proportional or independent XY scaling 
  • Display the map using the data XY limits or choose to display the map using a subset of the data 
  • Control background fill and line color and styles 
  • Full control over the axis limits and scaling, axis title, axis line style, tick labels, tick spacing, tick display, and grid lines

Other Customizations

  • Create any number of maps on a single page
  • Create independent maps or create a combined map with multiple types of map layers
  • Add scale bars
  • Add additional axes
  • Add text, polylines, polygons and symbols
  • Edit text, line, fill and symbol properties
  • Set the transparency for images, fill patterns and most map layers
  • Define custom line styles and colors 
  • Add any number of text blocks at any position on the map, using TrueType fonts
  • Include superscripts, subscripts and Greek or other characters in text
  • Add arrowheads to lines


Customize your map using the abundant options available to you!
 


Create the most informative maps possible by adding text, scale bars, location maps, and other details!

 

Superior Gridding

The gridding methods in Surfer allow you to produce accurate contour, surface, wireframe, vector, image, and shaded relief maps from your XYZ data. The data can be randomly dispersed over the map area, and Surfer's gridding will interpolate your data onto a grid. Use Surfer default settings or choose from twelve different gridding methods. Each gridding method provides complete control over the gridding parameters, so you can produce exactly the map you want. If your data are already collected in a regularly spaced rectangular array, you can create a map directly from your data. Computer generated contour maps have never been more accurate.

Gridding Features

Variograms

Use the variogram modeling subsystem to quantitatively assess the spatial continuity of data. Variograms may be used to select an appropriate variogram model when gridding with the Kriging algorithm. Surfer uses a variogram grid as a fundamental internal data representation and once this grid is built, any experimental variogram can be computed instantaneously. 


Instantly create variograms in Surfer to quantitatively 
assess the spatial continuity of your data.

Variogram Features

Faults and Breaklines

Define faults and breaklines when gridding your data. Faults act as barriers to the information flow, and data on one side of the fault will not be directly used to calculate grid node values on the other side of the fault. Breaklines include Z values. When Surfer sees a breakline, it uses the Z value of the breakline in combination with nearby data points to calculate the grid node value. Unlike faults, breaklines are not barriers to information flow and the gridding algorithm can cross the breakline to use a point on the other side to calculate a grid node value. Use breaklines to define streamlines, ridges, and other breaks in slopes.

The gridding methods that support faults are: Inverse Distance to a Power, Minimum Curvature, Nearest Neighbor, and Data Metrics. 

The gridding methods that support breaklines are: Inverse Distance to a Power, Kriging, Minimum Curvature, Nearest Neighbor, Radial Basis Function, Moving Average, Data Metrics, and Local Polynomial. 

Grid Functions

In addition to creating maps, you can perform a variety of functions using grid files. Just a few of the possibilities include:

  • Calculating the volume and areas of grid files! You can calculate the planar and surface area, and calculate the volume between two grid files, or a grid file and any horizontal plane.
  • Applying a mathematical equation to grid files. Examples include subtracting one grid file from another to create an isopach map, converting outliers to a minimum or maximum value, or multiplying one grid file by a conversion factor to convert the Z units from meters to feet.
  • Applying grid filters to emphasize details or remove background variation in the grid file.
  • Blanking specified regions in a grid file to prevent contours or map data from being drawn through those areas (ie. buildings, roads, or outside of field areas).
  • Creating cross sections and topographical profiles.
  • Combining multiple grid files into a single, easy to use grid file.
  • Extracting subsets of grids or DEMs based on rows and columns.
  • Transforming, offset, rescale, rotate, and mirror grids.
  • Smoothing grid files to create smoother maps.
  • Calculating first and second directional derivatives at user-specified orientations.
  • Calculating differential and integral operators utilizing gradient, Laplacian, biharmonic, and integrated volume operators.
  • Analyzing your data with Fourier and Spectral Analysis with Correlograms and Periodogram.
  • Calculating residuals to find the difference between the original data point values the interpolated Z values at those points, or to find the Z values at any specific XY locations.
  • Interactively editing individual grid node values.

Supported grid file formats are: ADF, AM, AN?, ASI, BIL, BIN, BIP, BMP, BSQ, BW, COL, CPS-3, DAT, DCM, DDF, DEM, DIC, DOS, DT?, ECW, ERS, FLD, FLT, GIF, GRD, GXF, HDF, HDR, IMG, INFO, JPEG, JPG, LAT, PCX, PNG, PNM/PPM/PGM/PBM, RAS, RAW, RGB, RGBA, RST, SID, STK, SUN, TGA, TIF, TIFF, VTK, X, XIMG, ZMAP, and ?10g.  



Using USGS and SRTM Data
 

  • Use USGS DEM, National Elevation Dataset (NED) and NASA Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) data with any Surfer command that uses grid files.
  • Directly use the files in native format without modification or conversion.
  • Display information about the files, such as X, Y and Z extents or grid statistics.
  • Create contour, vector, shaded relief, image, 3D surface, and 3D wireframe maps from the files.


The above contour map was generated from a grid file in BIL format,
downloaded from the USGS The National Map Seamless Server

 



Worksheet

Surfer lets you massage your data in many ways to achieve the exact output you want. Surfer includes a full-featured worksheet for creating, opening, editing, and saving data files. Data files can be up to one billion rows and columns, subject to available memory. You can cut, copy, and paste data within the Surfer worksheet or between applications.

Worksheet Features

  • Open files in BLN, BNA, CSV, DAT, DBF, MDB, SLK, TXT, WKx, WRx, XLS, and XLSX formats
  • Import a database directly into the Surfer worksheet
  • Calculate data statistics
  • Perform data transformations using advanced mathematical functions
  • Sort data based on primary and secondary columns
  • Spatially filter data
  • Assign a projection or coordinate system to your data, and convert the data to a new projection or coordinate system
    • Select a predefined coordinate system from Geographic (lat/lon) or one of the supported projected systems (Polar/Arctic/Antarctic, Regional/National, State Plane, UTM, and World)
    • Define a custom coordinate system by selecting a supported projection, specifying the projection settings, and either choosing one of over 400 predefined datums or creating a custom datum
    • Add a frequently used coordinate system to the Favorites list to be easily accessible
  • Assign which columns in the worksheet contain the X, Y and Z data
  • Use the Find/Replace function in the worksheet to easily find or replace your data
  • Print the worksheet
  • Save your data in BLN, BNA, CSV, DAT, SLK, TXT, and XLS formats.


Open, enter, edit and save data in the Surfer worksheet.

 



Object Manager

The object manager makes the editing of any object simple. It displays all the objects in the plot document in an easy-to-use hierarchical tree arrangement. Double click on objects in the object manager to easily edit them, check or uncheck the check boxes next to their name to show or hide them, drag and drop objects to rearrange the order in which they are drawn, and overlay maps by dragging and dropping map layers from one map frame into another! Select any object or map layer in the Object Manager for easy deletion.


Use the object manager to easily 
access and edit all objects
in your plot window.